亚搏体育app软件—亚搏app首页,专注为餐馆饭店、链锁品牌商生产供应料理包,欢迎合作洽谈!

产品中心

PRODUCT

电 话:15711850160

手 机:15711850160

联系人:陈小姐

E_mail:970828091@qq.com

地 址:广州市白云区太和草庄东路33号

您当前的位置是: 首页 > 产品中心 > 素菜系列

素菜系列

亚搏体育app软件|“春秋笔法”与选择性报道

发布时间:2021-03-11 00:02:01 丨 浏览次数 268次

Recently, the BBC released a documentary titled "Du Fu, China's Greatest Poet", which introduces in detail Du Fu and his poems.

最近,英国广播公司发行了名为“中国最伟大的诗人杜甫”的纪录片,其中详细介绍了杜甫及其诗歌。

On April 19, the website of the State Supervision Commission of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection released the article "Cultural Review丨BBC recommends Du Fu: His greatness and compassion are resonating in the West", saying亚搏体育app软件 that its broadcast has enabled people who are isolated at home to fight the epidemic and suffer from pandemic anxiety. In order to resonate, the beauty of Du Fu's poems is full of comforting power.

4月19日,中央纪委国家监察委员会网站发布《文化评论丨英国广播公司推荐杜甫:他的伟大和同情心在西方引起共鸣》,称其播出的节目使在家中与流行病作斗争并患有大流行性焦虑症。为了产生共鸣,杜甫的诗歌之美充满安慰之力。

However, some Chinese people believe that the BBC broadcast a documentary about Du Fu at this time, using Du Fu’s compassionate style to imply the suffering of the Chinese people in the new crown pneumonia, and in this way induce people to associate the writer Fang. Fang and her "Wuhan Diary" is an act of malicious intent to discredit China.

但是,一些中国人认为,英国广播公司(BBC)当时播放了关于杜甫的纪录片,用杜甫的同情心的风格暗示了中国人民在冠冕性肺炎中的痛苦,并以此诱使人们结交作家方芳。方和她的《武汉日记》是有意破坏中国的行为。

This article is not to explore whether this documentary is suggesting Fang Fang and "Wuhan Diary". We do not draw conclusions here. However, we have noticed that many critics of Fang Fang have used a term called "chunqiu style", saying that Fang Fang, like some Western media, uses this writing method for selective reporting, so as to incite certain The purpose of these readers’ emotions.

本文的目的不是探讨这部纪录片是否暗示了芳芳和《武汉日记》。我们在这里不作结论。但是,我们注意到,许多放芳人的批评者使用了“春秋风”这个词,说放芳人像某些西方媒体一样,使用这种写作方法进行选择性报道,以煽动这些读者的特定目的。情绪。

So, what does "chunqiu brushwork" mean?

那么,“春秋笔法”是什么意思呢?

First of all, "Spring and Autumn" is a work of Confucius, as a chronicle of history, recording the history from 722 BC to 481 BC. Because of this work, the approximate period of history recorded in the book is called the "Spring and Autumn Period".

首先,《春秋》是孔子的一部作品,作为历史编年史,记载了公元前722年至前481年的历史。由于这项工作,书中记录的大约历史时期被称为“春秋时期”。

Now, "Chunqiu Brushwork" is a derogatory term used to criticize selective reporting on the Internet. But in ancient times, this was a more commendatory term. The ancients said: Confucius made the Spring and Autumn Period, but the rebellious officials were afraid. Confucius wrote this book not just to record history, but more importantly, he wanted to convey his thoughts and positions through this book.

现在,“春秋笔法”是一个贬义词,用于批评互联网上的选择性报道。但是在古代,这是一个更具有称赞的术语。古人说:孔子是春秋战国时期,但叛逆的官员却很害怕。孔子写这本书不仅是为了记录历史,更重要的是,他想通过这本书传达他的思想和立场。

When Confucius wrote "Spring and Autumn", he used very simple words, and sometimes a historical event was written in less than 10 words. Therefore, there have been many comments on "Chun Qiu" in later generations, such as Zuo Qiuming's "Zuo Zhuan", which is an extension and supplement to "Chun Qiu".

当孔子写《春秋》时,他用了很简单的话,有时历史事件用不到十个词写。因此,后世对“春秋”的评论很多,例如左秋明的《左传》,它是对“春秋”的延伸和补充。

Confucius writes a brief history with his own intentions. He did not express his views directly, but implicitly expressed his position through some words. An important work done by "Zuo Zhuan" is to clearly explain these positions.

孔子用自己的意图写下了一段简短的历史。他没有直接表达自己的观点,而是通过几句话暗中表达了自己的立场。 “左传”所做的一项重要工作就是要清楚地解释这些立场。

"Spring and Autumn" was recorded from Lu Yin in the first year. In the history of Lu Yin in the first year, Confucius used a total of 62 words:

录入第一年的吕寅《春秋》。在第一年的路印史上,孔子总共使用了62个词:

At first glance, these are all concrete things, just like reporting the news, and you can’t see your position. But according to the interpretation of Zuo Zhuan, Confucius is actually expressing his position in most of the sentences.

乍一看,这些都是具体的事情,就像报道新闻一样,您看不到自己的位置。但是,根据左传的解释,孔子实际上在大多数句子中都表达了自己的立场。

"The first year, spring, Wang Zhengyue" means that this year is the first year of Lu Yin. But he did not say "ascended the throne" because Lu Hui died that year, but because the eldest son was young, the Chinese established the elder concubine Xigu as a temporary regent to act as the monarch. Siegu was Lu Yingong, but because he was only an acting monarch that year, Confucius only said "first year", not "ascended the throne."

“元年春,王正岳”,意味着今年是卢寅元年。但是他没有说“登基”是因为当年卢辉去世了,而是因为长子还年轻,中国人成立了the妃西姑作为临时的摄政王。西古(Siegu)是卢英公(Lu Yingong),但由于那年他只是代理君主,孔子只说“元年”,而不是“登基”。

"In March, Gong and Luyi's father are in alliance with Mi", it means that Lu Yin and Lu'an Gong (named Cao Ke, Zi Yifu), the king of the country, met in "Mi". The country of Lu is a country of viscounts, but Confucius did not call the monarch of Lu’s title (you should call him ``Zi Zi'' if you call him a title), because the title of the current monarch of the country of Lu has not yet been confirmed by Zhou Tianzi. The reason why h亚搏app首页e didn't call him "Cao Ke", but called him "Yifu" by the word "Yifu", is to respect him.

“ 3月,龚和路易的父亲与米同盟”,这意味着国君路因和六安宫(命名为曹克,子义夫)在“米”相遇。吕国是子国,但孔子并没有称卢国为君主(如果称呼他为称号,则应称他为``子子''),因为陆尚未得到周天子的证实。他之所以不称呼他为“曹可”,而是用“逸夫”来称呼他为“逸夫”,是为了尊重他。

"Xia, May, Zheng Burke Duan Yuyan". Everyone has learned this story in Chinese textbooks. Gong Shu Duan is the younger brother of Zheng Zhuanggong, but he fights with his elder brother and does not look like a brother, so he is not called his brother, but directly called his name "Duan". Although this is a fight between brothers, it is actually like two monarchs at war, so the word "gram" is used. Calling Zheng Zhuanggong "Uncle Zheng" does not highlight his elder brother's identity, which is a mockery of his failure to teach a good brother.

“夏,五月,郑伯克段玉妍”。每个人都通过中文教科书学到了这个故事。龚书端是郑壮功的弟弟,但他与哥哥吵架,看上去不像哥哥,所以他不叫哥哥,而是直接叫“段”。尽管这是兄弟之间的斗争,但实际上就像两个君主在战争中一样,因此使用了“克”一词。称郑壮功为“郑叔叔”并没有突出他哥哥的身份,这是对他未能教好兄弟的嘲笑。

"Autumn, July, the heavenly king makes Zai (xuǎn) come back to Hui Gong Zhongzi Zhi (fèng)". This matter is more complicated and needs to be explained clearly:

“秋天,七月,天上的国王使宰(xuǎn)回到慧宫中子之(fèng)”。这件事比较复杂,需要明确说明:

In July, Zhou Tianzi sent a Zai (zai is the official name, and Ao is the name of a person) to come to Lu to present funeral items. This item was used by Lu Hui who has passed away. Part of it was also given to Hui Gong's wife Zhongzi so that she could use it for funerals for Hui Gong.

7月,周天子派一个仔仔(仔仔是正式名称,而敖仔是一个人的名字)来鲁介绍葬礼。已故的卢辉曾使用过此物品。其中一部分还送给了回贡的妻子中子,以便她可以将其用作回贡的葬礼。

According to the etiquette of Zhou Dynasty:

根据周朝礼节:

Seven months after the emperor died, the princes attended the funeral;

皇帝去世七个月后,王子参加了葬礼。

The princes can only be buried five months after they die, and the allies participate in the funeral;

王子死后五个月只能被埋葬,盟国参加葬礼。

The doctor can only be buried three months after his death, and colleagues with similar status will attend the funeral;

医生只能在死后三个月被埋葬,地位相似的同事将参加葬礼。

The burial was only one month after the death, and relatives attended the funeral.

死后仅一个月的葬礼,亲戚参加了葬礼。

Because the higher the status of the death, the more people come to mourn, and the wider the number of people involved in different places, so we should allow them enough time to come to the funeral. Gong Lu Hui was a prince and was buried five months after his death in accordance with the etiquette.

因为死亡的地位越高,哀悼的人就越多,而在不同地方参与的人数越多,因此我们应该给他们足够的时间参加葬礼。龚鲁辉是一位王子,按照礼节被埋葬了五个月。

But Zhou Tianzi sent someone to give him funeral items, and it took far longer than five months. When Tianzi Zhou mourned the dead (Gong Lu Hui), he missed the funeral time; when he condoned the living (Gong Lu Hui’s wife Zhongzi), he missed the time for the mourning, which meant that they didn’t match both ends, completely contrary to the law of etiquette. .

但是周天子派人给他葬礼,花了超过五个月的时间。当田子周为死者哀悼时,他错过了葬礼时间。当他宽恕死者的生活(龚露惠的妻子中子)时,他错过了哀悼的时间,这意味着他们的两端并不一致,完全违反了礼节法。 。

Originally, the emperor Zhou gave funeral items to the dead princes, it was a routine operation, and it was not worth writing in history books. However, due to the delay of the emperor's actions this time, Confucius marked the month and wrote it in "Spring and Autumn", which is a vague criticism of Zhou emperor. But he couldn't directly criticize the emperor, so he wrote the name "Zai Yu" and let him take the place of the emperor, implying that it was because of Er's mistake that caused the delay.

最初,周皇给死去的王子们送葬品,这是例行的操作,不值得在历史书中写。然而,由于这次皇帝行动的延误,孔子将月份记为月,并写在《春秋》中,这是对周皇的模糊批评。但是他不能直接批评皇帝,于是他写了“仔鱼”这个名字,让他代替了皇帝,这暗示是由于Er的失误造成了延误。

In addition, "Spring and Autumn" also has another very distinctive feature: Confucius will use different words for the same behavior, depending on the nature.

此外,“春秋”还具有另一个非常鲜明的特点:孔子会根据性质,对同一行为使用不同的词语。

For example, killing, Confucius would probably use three words: kill, kill, and punish.

例如,杀人时,孔子可能会使用三个词:杀人,杀人和惩罚。

In addition to the common "killing", "killing" refers to the murder of the following crimes, such as the killing of the elders by the juniors and the monarchs by the officials. "Zhu" refers to the death of the deceased being guilty.

除常见的“杀人”外,“杀人”是指谋杀以下罪行,例如少年杀害长老和官员杀害君主。 “朱”是指死者有罪的死亡。

For example, Zhou Yu, the son of Weiguo, killed his elder brother to win the position of the monarch of Weiguo, so the "Spring and Autumn Period" recorded it as "Wushen, Weizhou Yu killed his emperor", and used the word "killing"; Later, the Weiguo doctor Shi Jie coaxed Zhou Yu to Chen Guo and designed and killed Zhou Yu together with Chen Guojun. Although Zhou Yu was a monarch and was designed to be killed by a doctor, Zhou Yu's status as a monarch was improper, and killing him cannot be called "killing." Therefore, the record of "Spring and Autumn" is "September, Wei Ren killed Zhou Yupu".

例如,魏国之子周瑜杀害其兄长以赢得魏国君主的职位,因此《春秋战国》将其记录为“武神,魏州宇杀害其皇帝”,并用了这个词。 “杀人”;后来,魏国医生史杰哄骗周瑜与陈果,并与陈国钧设计并杀死了周瑜。尽管周瑜是君主,被设计为要被医生杀死,但周瑜作为君主的身份是不正当的,杀死他不能被称为“杀人”。因此,“春秋”的记录是“ 9月,魏仁杀死了周玉璞”。

Of course, Confucius hadn't used the word "Zhu" on the issue of Zhou Yu's death. Perhaps he considered that there were other problems at the top and bottom and felt that although Zhou Yu deserved to die, he was a monarch after all. But later Mencius didn't think so, he was more radical on similar issues.

当然,孔子在周瑜的死问题上并没有使用“朱”这个词。也许他认为顶部和底部还有其他问题,并认为虽然周瑜应该死,但他毕竟是君主。但是后来孟子不这么认为,他在类似问题上更加激进。

When Mencius and Wei Hui met, they discussed the story of Zhou Wu's crusade against Shang Zhou. King Shang Zhou is the emperor, and King Zhou Wu is a prince. King Wei Hui believed that the princes' crusade against the emperor was an offense and murder of the emperor by his officials. Mencius replied:

孟子和魏慧见面时,他们讨论了周武东征商周的故事。商周国王是皇帝,周武国王是王子。魏辉国王认为,王子对皇帝的十字军东征是皇帝的罪行和谋杀。孟子回答:

"Wen Zhuo is a husband, but I have never heard of a king."

“温卓是丈夫,但我从未听说过国王。”

This means that King Zhou is a lone husband and a thief. To kill him is to kill the lone husband and a thief, not to kill the king. Here, he explicitly used the word "Zhu".

这意味着周王是一个孤独的丈夫和一个小偷。杀死他就是杀死唯一的丈夫和小偷,而不是杀死国王。在这里,他明确地使用了“朱”这个词。

In the concept of Confucius, there is the principle of "taboo for the respected, taboo for the relatives, and taboo for the wise". "The Spring and Autumn" was actually compiled by Confucius by deleting materials from predecessors. When he selected the materials, he would deliberately avoid some things that would be unpleasant and unbearable for the "honor, relatives, and sages". Of course, in most cases, he will also record and criticize something euphemistically through the "Spring and Autumn Period".

孔子的思想是“尊敬忌讳,亲戚忌讳,智者忌讳”。孔子实际上是通过删掉前辈的材料编成的《春秋》。当他选择这些材料时,他会故意避免一些“荣誉,亲戚和圣人”不愉快和难以忍受的事情。当然,在大多数情况下,他还将在“春秋时期”中委婉地记录和批评一些东西。

For example, Confucius would skip certain important events and not write about them. For example, in October of the first year of Lu Yin, Lu Huigong, the first ruler, was buried, but he did not record it. According to the explanation of Zuo Zhuan, when Lu Hui died, Lu and Song were at war, and Hui Gong's son was still young, so the funeral was very scribbled. Now that the battle is over, it has to be buried again. However, Gong Lu Yin was temporarily acting as the monarch, so he was not qualified to preside over the funeral of the first king; Hui Gong’s son was still young and could not preside over the funeral. Therefore, Confucius directly did not record the reburial, because the name of the incident was not righteous and it was not in accordance with the etiquette, so he skipped it. This is similar to the current "selective reporting".

例如,孔子会跳过某些重要事件,而不会写下它们。例如,在卢寅元年的10月,第一位统治者卢慧功被埋葬,但他没有记录下来。根据左传的解释,卢辉去世时,卢与宋处于交战状态,而慧恭的儿子还很年轻,所以葬礼非常草。现在战斗已经结束,必须再次埋葬。但是,龚露因暂时担任君主,因此他没有资格主持首位国王的葬礼。惠功的儿子还很年轻,无法主持葬礼。因此,孔子没有直接记录下葬礼,因为事件的名称不是正义的,也不符合礼节,所以他跳过了。这类似于当前的“选择性报告”。

The Spring and Autumn Period is an era of "ritual collapse and music ruin". The traditional rituals of the Western Zhou Dynasty are no longer binding, and there are many things that are not respected by the ministers, sons and fathers, and the authority of the emperor. Therefore, Confucius used the Spring and Autumn Period when writing, the purpose of which was to maintain the rituals of the Zhou Dynasty, to maintain the authority of the Emperor Zhou, and to maintain the society of "junjun, ministers, father and son" in his mind.

春秋时期是一个“礼节崩溃,音乐毁灭”的时代。西周时期的传统仪式不再具有约束力,许多事情没有得到部长,儿子和父亲的尊重以及皇帝的权威。因此,孔子在写作时使用了春秋战国时期,其目的是维护周朝的礼节,维护周朝的权威,维护“君君,大臣,父子”的社会。在他的脑海中。

It can be seen that Confucius was acting against the trend of the times, and it was destined that his ideas would not be accepted at that time. Although Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty banned hundreds of schools and exalted Confucianism under the initiative of Dong Zhongshu, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty had forgotten one thing: his ancestor Liu Bang was a courtier of the Qin Dynasty, but he eventually overthrew the Qin Dynasty. It does not conform to Confucius' thinking (of course, he can also quote Mencius: Wen Zhu is a husband and a husband, but he has never heard of a king). It's just that after you have settled down, you need to use Confucius' ideas to maintain your rule.

可以看出,孔子的行为与时代潮流背道而驰,注定他的思想在那个时代不会被接受。汉武帝虽然在董仲舒的倡议下禁止了数百所学校并崇高儒学,但汉武帝却忘记了一件事情:他的祖先刘邦是秦朝的朝臣,但他最终推翻了秦朝。王朝。这与孔子的思想不符(当然,他也可以引用孟子:文竹是夫妻,但他从未听说过国王)。只是在您安顿下来之后,您需要运用孔子的思想来维护自己的统治。

Similarly, why don’t people like selective reporting now? Selective reports may have some facts, but they are not comprehensive facts. In this case, it is the same as the "Spring and Autumn Period". Its purpose is not to report and record, but to express one's own position and opinion, and to influence the position of more people.

同样,为什么人们现在不喜欢选择性报告?选择性报告可能有一些事实,但不是全面的事实。在这种情况下,它与“春秋时期”相同。其目的不是报告和记录,而是表达自己的立场和意见,并影响更多人的地位。

Therefore, this raises another question: In the case of documentary articles, should the documentary be put in the first place, or should the opinions and positions be put in the first place? In other words, does an incomplete and incomplete documentary article qualify as a carrier of opinions and positions? And what kind of documentary articles can be considered comprehensive and complete?

因此,这就提出了另一个问题:对于纪录片,应该将纪录片放在首位,还是将观点和立场放在首位?换句话说,不完整和不完整的纪录片是否可以作为观点和立场的载体?什么样的纪实文章可以被认为是全面而完整的?

For example, Confucius used extremely simple words to describe events. We can basically say that "Spring and Autumn" as a history book is extremely incomplete and extremely incomplete. Between the lines, it is full of standpoints rather than specific historical facts. It was not until the appearance of "Zuo Zhuan" that the specific incidents were filled in. Only after "Zuo Zhuan" comprehensively describes relevant historical events and Confucius' position, we will understand Confucius' thoughts and moral standards.

例如,孔子用非常简单的词来形容事件。基本上可以说,《春秋》作为一本历史书是极其残缺和极其残缺的。字里行间充满了观点,而不是特定的历史事实。直到“左传”的出现才填补了具体的事件。只有在“左传”全面地描述了有关历史事件和孔子的立场之后,我们才能理解孔子的思想和道德水平。

首页 | 关于我们 | 新闻中心 | 产品中心 | 客户案例 | 联系我们 |

扫码关注我们